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The actually irradiated slice is seen in the magnified panel with the raster point positions indicated as open circles. The superimposed dots show the beam center positions measured online by a multiwire chamber.
The spot size of the beam is larger than the circles and overlaps many positions. Figure 14 Color online Common gantry design left and cork-screw gantry right for passive proton therapy systems. Figure 16 Color online Illustration of the spatial shift of a target volume in the thorax caused by breathing.
The dark and white contour lines indicate the target positions at the time of maximum inhalation and exhalation, respectively. Figure courtesy of E. Rietzel and C. Figure 17 Color online Principle of respiratory-gated irradiation. Figure 18 Color online Film exposures for stationary, moving uncompensated , and motion-compensated tracking irradiations.
The corresponding horizontal dose profiles are shown in the lower right panel. With three fields an excellent sparing of critical organs brain stem and optical nerves is achieved. Figure courtesy of O. Their stopping depth is nearly the same as for the primary ions and can be monitored with a PET camera. For comparison the depth-dose profile of the primary beam is shown by a dotted line. Left: Planned dose distribution superimposed onto the CT image.
The target volume and the brain stem as an organ at risk are highlighted. By comparison with the prediction it was verified that the carbon ions were stopped before the brain stem. Lines represent the paths of individual secondary electrons. Figure 24 Color online Illustration of the different microscopic dose distribution by x rays and carbon ions with different specific energies.
The average macroscopic dose is 2 Gy in all cases.
Advance human wellbeing by developing new ways to communicate, understand, and respond to emotion
Data are redrawn from 19 and Figure 27 Color online RBE dependence on the radiation sensitivity of cell lines. Right: Survival curves of the same cell lines demonstrate the different radiosensitivities after x ray irradiation. Experimental data are from Figure 29 Color online Influence of the oxygen level on cell survival of human kidney T-1 cells for carbon ions with different LET.
Lines are based on experimental data by Experimental data for several different cell lines are depicted. Figure 32 Schematics to demonstrate the determination of the absolute clinical dose for carbon-ion treatments. The RBE of 3. Figure 33 Schematics of the local effect model. Figure 34 Color online Validation of the treatment planning system with CHO cells in a therapylike scenario with an organ at risk close to the tumor volume represented by the H-shaped structure.
- Improvement of SOBP formed by carbon-ion beam with a ripple f..|INIS!
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Upper left: Measured survival data. Upper right: Calculated survival. Lower row: Survival along cuts through the irradiated volume. Figure 35 Color online Skin reaction after irradiation with x rays and carbon ions. The scoring level indicates the severity of the skin reaction [for details see ]. Using the predictions of LEM, the doses for carbon-ion irradiation were adjust to result in the same biological effect as the photon fields applied simultaneously. From ; adapted from Sign up to receive regular email alerts from Reviews of Modern Physics.
Journal: Phys. X Rev. Kisling, P. Berner, M. Price, F. DeMarco, K. Iwamoto, S.
Scientific Abstracts and Sessions
Saini, G. Finkelstein, M. Edirisinghe, J. Bax, C. Lewis, D. Chen, D. Hoover, A.
Program for Tuesday, October 15th
Fenster, E. Paliwal, J. Brewer, M. Baird, P.
Rajaguru, C. Sheng, R. McLawhorn, A. McIntosh, R. Van Ausdal, A. Martof, P. Kelley, T. Cunha, A. Atamturk, I. Hsu, J.
Pouliot, K. Furhang, M. Chadha, K. Hu, L. Nazaryan, P. Gueye, C. Park, K. Saxon, B. Chetty, T. Nurushev, I. Cunha, I. Hsu, V. Weinberg, J. Pillainayagam, T. Kron, R.
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Song, O. Patil, Z.