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Contents:
  1. About this book
  2. ‎Landslide Science and Practice on Apple Books
  3. Refine your editions:
  4. Landslide inventory of the Basilicata region (Southern Italy)
  5. Landslide inventory of the Basilicata region (Southern Italy)

The displacement curve calculated from Equation 11 is shown in Figure 6 b. Compared with the displacement curve shown in Figure 6 a, the displacement curve calculated by Equation 11 is smoother, eliminating some parts of the error. However, the curve is still controlled by the control points on the polyline in Figure 6 a. Thus, the error caused by the control points cannot be eliminated.

Through the displacement curve calculated by Equation 12 shown in Figure 6 c, it is clear that the calculated displacement curve has a certain phase difference with the reference curve at the depth z.

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The angle sequence interpolation is based on the continuity of the probe angle change first-order derivative of the angle curve , which means that there is no abrupt change in the angle between adjacent measurement units, and it forms a smooth transition. In Equation 11 , the angle distribution of the entire unit body length L is replaced by the angle of the measuring point so that there is no phase difference.

As seen from Figure 6 b,d, the accuracy of the measurement is improved by these two correction algorithms. To accurately evaluate the accuracy of the two algorithms, the mean variance of the two types of calculation results with respect to the reference data is calculated using Equation The mean variance results, 1. The flexible probe can be arranged in pile-containing structural model Figure 7 probe a and non-pile structural model Figure 7 probe b.

‎Landslide Science and Practice on Apple Books

The pile-containing structural model focuses on monitoring the deformation and displacement of the pile body, and the non-pile structural model focuses on monitoring the deformation and displacement of the landslide body itself. Arrangement of the flexible probe in the physical model test of a landslide. In the pile-containing structural model, the flexible probe is directly attached to the pile body for monitoring, as shown in Figure 7 probe a. The bottom of the probe is the reference point for the displacement calculation, and its position must be fixed during the test. Therefore, the arrangement of the bottom of the probe is at least imbedded into the section where the deformation of the pile is negligible.

In the non-pile structural model, the probe is directly embedded in the landslide body, as shown in Figure 7 probe b. The probe has the best coupling for stress and deformation when its wide surface is aligned with the main slip direction of the landslide. The bottom of the probe should be embedded in the bedrock to ensure that it does not move during the test.

Unfortunately, guided by the specific project needs, only the probe arranged in the pile-containing structural model has been tested so far. The physical model, containing a sliding mass, a sliding zone and a stable layer, has a size of 1. The stable layer is made of concrete, composed by coarse sand, cement, gesso, and water with a ratio of The loading process and the displacement monitoring results of a physical model test are shown in Figure 8. During the test, the model was graded and loaded according to the curve shown in Figure 8 a.

The initial stress of the loading was set at 0. Each stage of the loading time lasts 10 min, and the displacement is measured once by the flexible probe before the start of the next stage of loading.

Landslide Early Warning System

The whole loading process continues for min, and the monitored displacement curves are shown in Figure 8 b. The loading process and displacement monitoring results of the model test: a test loading process; b displacement curves. After the test, by opening the model frame side baffle and cutting out the side of the soil, the profile is revealed, as shown in Figure 9. Since the pile mainly produces elastic deformation and the soil mainly produces plastic deformation, the pile is restored to the original state when the loading force is unloaded, while the soil body retains the maximum deformation state, leaving a gap that can be measured directly.

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Physical model profile after unloading at the end of the test and comparison: a model longitudinal pic; b measurement curve at th min vs. As shown in Figure 9 b, the displacement curve measured by the flexible probe is highly coincident with the gap.

The maximum top displacement is Therefore, the feasibility and accuracy of the flexible inclinometer probe used for displacement monitoring in a landslide physical model test are proven. Limited by the basic principle, the flexible inclinometer probe cannot measure the displacement on the z-axis or the rotation around the z-axis, which should be considered in its application.

Landslide inventory of the Basilicata region (Southern Italy)

If z-axis displacement is necessary, additional instruments are required as a supplement. Concerning the rotation, self-twisting of the flexible inclinometer probe should be avoided during installation, and the initial orientation of the probe should be determined, recorded, and used as a reference direction for the measurement. In addition, encapsulated as a flat belt, the x-axis of the probe has the best deformation characteristics; thus, although the probe can measure the displacements on both the x and y axes, it is strongly recommended to align the x-axis with the main slip direction as much as possible to obtain the best deformation coupling between the probe and the sliding body.

In the physical model test, the x-axis just coincides with the main slip direction of the landslide, so it is reduced to 2-D displacement measurement, which is also consistent with most physical model test environments. However, this is not to say that the flexible inclinometer probe is only suitable for measurements with a single direction [ 27 , 31 ]. According to the principle of conversion, the combined displacement can be converted from both x-angle and y-angle by Equation 6. Additionally, both the flexible inclinometer probe and the data interpolation method can be applied to landslide field monitoring.

A dedicated reinforced structure for the field installation is being designed and constructed, and it will be installed in an actual landslide soon. The spline interpolation method and its interpolation order are fully applicable to on-site measurement. Thanks to the simplicity of its silicone encapsulation structure, the flexible inclinometer probe will be more economical than traditional inclinometers for landslide field monitoring.

Flexible inclinometer probe development is driven by the requirements of deep displacement measurements in the physical model test of a landslide.

Landslide inventory of the Basilicata region (Southern Italy)

With the advantages of good deformation coupling, large deformation capacity, and automatic measurement, the flexible probe is a good match for the physical model test. The key features are as follows. Analysis of the measuring principle. With stability in time and space, gravitational acceleration is the ideal reference physical quantity for attitude measurement. The flexible probe senses inclination information based on the gravity component and can accurately reflect the relationship between the measurement data and deep displacement, including size and direction.

The number and intervals of the measurement units can be flexibly customized to match the different operating conditions.


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Design of the flexible inclinometer probe. The key sensor is a MEMS chip with digital output and a high sampling rate; thus, a large amount of data can be used to calculate the weighted average to confirm the accuracy with an acceptable time delay. Encapsulated by silicone, the flexural rigidity of the probe can be ignored relative to the landslide body, with displacement coupling well to the landside body. Calibration and correction of the measurement result. A visual calibration method was proposed by comparing the shape curve read from checkered paper. Application of the flexible inclinometer probe.

The flexible probe can be buried in a landslide physical model directly or attached to an anti-sliding pile. With these functions and features, the flexible probe designed in this paper is not only suitable for a landslide model test but also for field monitoring. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Sensors Basel v. Sensors Basel. Published online Jan Find articles by Yongquan Zhang. Find articles by Huiming Tang. Find articles by Changdong Li. Find articles by Yi Cai. Find articles by Junrong Zhang. Find articles by Fulin Tan. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Received Oct 3; Accepted Jan Abstract The physical model test of landslides is important for studying landslide structural damage, and parameter measurement is key in this process. Keywords: landslide model test, displacement monitoring, flexible inclinometer probe, accelerometer, three-spline interpolation. Introduction Landslides are common and widely reported all over the world. Measuring Principle 2. Angle Measurement Units with Gravity Component Accelerometer In practical engineering, the displacement of a landslide is generally relative to the displacement of the geodetic coordinate system; therefore, to measure the position change caused by any sliding, one must locate a relatively fixed reference in the geodetic coordinate system as the benchmark.

Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Measurement of the Distribution of Lateral Displacement by the Accelerometer Cluster As shown in Figure 2 a, the accelerometer cannot obtain the horizontal displacement of the landslide directly; rather, it measures the inclination angle and tendency of the carrier and obtains the projection of length L in the horizontal plane along the inclination and azimuth angle that is horizontal to the displacement of the landslide by assuming that the deflection angle of the carrier within a finite height range L can be approximated to the same value.

Design of the Measuring Instrument 3. Overview of the Instrument As shown in Figure 3 , the whole measurement device includes a flexible probe, controller, and PC software. Figure 3.


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Composition and Encapsulation of the Probe Depending on the specific application conditions, the length of the probe and the interval of the units can be customized before encapsulation.