There are also standard named bases which are used in a wide variety of models, for instance the bird base is an intermediate stage in the construction of the flapping bird. Almost any laminar flat material can be used for folding; the only requirement is that it should hold a crease.
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Origami paper, often referred to as "kami" Japanese for paper , is sold in prepackaged squares of various sizes ranging from 2. It is commonly colored on one side and white on the other; however, dual coloured and patterned versions exist and can be used effectively for color-changed models. Origami paper weighs slightly less than copy paper, making it suitable for a wider range of models. This technique allows for a more rounded sculpting of the model, which becomes rigid and sturdy when it is dry. Foil-backed paper, as its name implies, is a sheet of thin foil glued to a sheet of thin paper.
Related to this is tissue foil, which is made by gluing a thin piece of tissue paper to kitchen aluminium foil. Foil-backed paper is available commercially, but not tissue foil; it must be handmade. Both types of foil materials are suitable for complex models. Washi is generally tougher than ordinary paper made from wood pulp, and is used in many traditional arts.
Washi is commonly made using fibres from the bark of the gampi tree, the mitsumata shrub Edgeworthia papyrifera , or the paper mulberry but can also be made using bamboo , hemp , rice, and wheat. Artisan papers such as unryu, lokta, hanji [ citation needed ] , gampi, kozo, saa, and abaca have long fibers and are often extremely strong. As these papers are floppy to start with, they are often backcoated or resized with methylcellulose or wheat paste before folding. Also, these papers are extremely thin and compressible, allowing for thin, narrowed limbs as in the case of insect models.
Paper money from various countries is also popular to create origami with; this is known variously as Dollar Origami, Orikane, and Money Origami. It is common to fold using a flat surface, but some folders like doing it in the air with no tools, especially when displaying the folding. For instance a bone folder allows sharp creases to be made in the paper easily, paper clips can act as extra pairs of fingers, and tweezers can be used to make small folds. When making complex models from origami crease patterns , it can help to use a ruler and ballpoint embosser to score the creases.
Completed models can be sprayed so they keep their shape better, and a spray is needed when wet folding. Origami not only covers still-life, there are also moving objects; Origami can move in clever ways. Action origami includes origami that flies, requires inflation to complete, or, when complete, uses the kinetic energy of a person's hands, applied at a certain region on the model, to move another flap or limb. Some argue that, strictly speaking, only the latter is really "recognized" as action origami.
Action origami, first appearing with the traditional Japanese flapping bird, is quite common. One example is Robert Lang 's instrumentalists; when the figures' heads are pulled away from their bodies, their hands will move, resembling the playing of music. Modular origami consists of putting a number of identical pieces together to form a complete model. Normally the individual pieces are simple but the final assembly may be tricky.
Many of the modular origami models are decorative folding balls like kusudama , the technique differs though in that kusudama allows the pieces to be put together using thread or glue. Chinese paper folding includes a style called Golden Venture Folding where large numbers of pieces are put together to make elaborate models.
Sometimes paper money is used for the modules.
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This style originated from some Chinese refugees while they were detained in America and is also called Golden Venture folding from the ship they came on. Wet-folding is an origami technique for producing models with gentle curves rather than geometric straight folds and flat surfaces. The paper is dampened so it can be moulded easily, the final model keeps its shape when it dries.
It can be used, for instance, to produce very natural looking animal models. Size, an adhesive that is crisp and hard when dry, but dissolves in water when wet and becoming soft and flexible, is often applied to the paper either at the pulp stage while the paper is being formed, or on the surface of a ready sheet of paper.
The latter method is called external sizing and most commonly uses Methylcellulose, or MC, paste, or various plant starches. It was developed by John Smith in the s to help inexperienced folders or those with limited motor skills. Some designers also like the challenge of creating within the very strict constraints. Origami tessellation is a branch that has grown in popularity after A tessellation is a collection of figures filling a plane with no gaps or overlaps.
In origami tessellations, pleats are used to connect molecules such as twist folds together in a repeating fashion.
During the s, Shuzo Fujimoto was the first to explore twist fold tessellations in any systematic way, coming up with dozens of patterns and establishing the genre in the origami mainstream. Around the same time period, Ron Resch patented some tessellation patterns as part of his explorations into kinetic sculpture and developable surfaces, although his work was not known by the origami community until the s.
Chris Palmer is an artist who has extensively explored tessellations after seeing the Zilij patterns in the Alhambra , and has found ways to create detailed origami tessellations out of silk. Robert Lang and Alex Bateman are two designers who use computer programs to create origami tessellations. Lucero Brazil. Kirigami is a Japanese term for paper cutting.
Cutting was often used in traditional Japanese origami, but modern innovations in technique have made the use of cuts unnecessary. Most origami designers no longer consider models with cuts to be origami, instead using the term Kirigami to describe them.
This change in attitude occurred during the s and 70s, so early origami books often use cuts, but for the most part they have disappeared from the modern origami repertoire; most modern books don't even mention cutting. Strip folding is a combination of paper folding and paper weaving. Another common fold is the Moravian Star which is made by strip folding in 3-dimensional design to include 16 spikes. The practice and study of origami encapsulates several subjects of mathematical interest.
For instance, the problem of flat-foldability whether a crease pattern can be folded into a 2-dimensional model has been a topic of considerable mathematical study. A number of technological advances have come from insights obtained through paper folding. For example, techniques have been developed for the deployment of car airbags and stent implants from a folded position. The problem of rigid origami "if we replaced the paper with sheet metal and had hinges in place of the crease lines, could we still fold the model?
For example, the Miura map fold is a rigid fold that has been used to deploy large solar panel arrays for space satellites. Origami can be used to construct various geometrical designs not possible with compass and straightedge constructions.
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For instance paper folding may be used for angle trisection and doubling the cube. Finally in this section, it is important to say I shall not at any time use the phrase 'Judaeo-Christian'. Although it appears to be convenient, in fact there is now growing acceptance of the understanding that it is both inaccurate and imperialistic. Inaccurate because Christianity owes a great debt to Hellenistic cultures as well as to Judaism, and imperialistic because it implies a progression from Judaism to Christianity with the latter taking over from the former.
This is not the case. The New Testament seems to be self-descriptive and as far as I know quite acceptable. The Hebrew Bible is composed of material from different dates and sources. Some were ancient when they were written down and preserved through an oral tradition, or through more ancient documents; these are usually narratives, hymns, poems and oracles.
They may owe a good deal to the background cultures. On the other hand, laws, commandments, strictures and a system of reward and punishment and above all the covenant between God and His people appear to be written by the later authors and editors, whose main concern was to impose male supremacy through their version of monotheism. These editors are often called the Deuteronomists. It is their struggle against the influence of the Goddess in the popular religion that forms much of their Biblical material.
But however hard they tried to banish Her, they were not successful. The concept of a goddess or goddesses in Israel runs through the whole of the Hebrew Bible. There, first subsumed into Jesus Christ, she emerges sometimes as the Holy Spirit within the Trinity and then as the Church, which is totally male-directed. Finally in much popular understanding she may become identified with the Virgin Mary. It is this long journey of the Goddess that we are beginning to travel now. The Patriarch Abraham is said to have lived in 'Ur of the Chaldees'.
It is from there he is called by God to leave his birthplace and travel to the land of Canaan, and it is he with whom God made his covenant. It is clear, therefore, that before this call Abraham and Abraham's parents worshipped the deities of their land, and certainly his father is quoted as so doing Joshua Who were these gods and goddesses? Perhaps they bear some relationship to those that Rachel, his grandson Jacob's wife, hid beneath her when she left her father's home Genesis , We are able to gain some idea about them and to make informed guesses.
In the last century or so archaeologists have discovered substantial material concerning the religions of the ancient Near East, and have provided the basis of research for scholars of many other disciplines. Raphael Patai is among those who have researched and commented widely on the female deities who entered the consciousness of the Hebrew people.